The Four Noble TruthsMN 141SN 12:43SN 12:51 (Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि catvāri āryasatyāni, Sinhala: චතුරාර්ය සත්ය, Pali: Cattāri Ariyasaccāni, Burmese: သစ္စာလေးပါး, Chinese: 四聖諦 / 四圣谛, Japanese: 四諦, Korean: 사성제, Mongolian Хутагт дөрвөн үнэн (Khutagt durvun unen), Tibetan: འཕགས་པའི་བདེན་པ་བཞི་, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Vietnamese: Tứ Diệu Đế) are an important principle in Buddhism, classically taught by the Buddha in the Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra.
What are the Four Noble Truths?
The Noble Truth of Suffering (Dukkha);
Association with the unpleasant (appiyehi sampayogo)
Separation from the beloved (piyehi vippayogo)
Not to obtain what one desires (yam’pi’ccham na labhati tam’pi)
In brief, the five aggregates of grasping (pañcū-pādāna-kkhandhā) are suffering.
The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering (Dukkha Samudaya);
Sensual Craving (Kāma-tanhā)
Craving for Existence (Bhava-tanhā)
Craving for Self-Annihilation (Vibhava-tanhā)
The Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering (Dukkha Nirodha);
It is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving (yo tassāy’eva tanhāya), its forsaking and abandonment, liberation and detachment from it (asesa-virāga-nirodha cāgo, patinissaggo, mutti anālayo).
The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering (Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Magga).
The text of the Lotus Sūtra views the Four Noble Truths as the first teaching of the Buddha, but not the final teaching. In the third chapter, Similes and Parables, the sūtra introduces what it calls "the most wonderful and unsurpassed great Dharma".
In the past at Vārāṇasī, you turned the wheel of the Dharma of the Four Noble Truths, making distinctions and preaching that all things are born and become extinct, being made up of the five components (skandhas). Now you turn the wheel of the most wonderful, the unsurpassed great Dharma. This Dharma is very profound and abstruse; there are few who can believe it. Since times past often we have heard the World-Honored One's preaching, but we have never heard this kind of profound, wonderful and superior Dharma. Since the World-Honored One preaches this Dharma, we all welcome it with joy.